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彼此和睦

February 14, 2016, More from this speaker 更多关于此讲员: Rev. Wong Siow Hwee (Mark 9:30-10:31) For more of this sermon series 更多关于此讲道系列: Mark
Preached at a Combined Service service

Tags: Mark 马可福音

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Title: 彼此和睦
Date: 14 Feb 2016
Preacher: Rev. Wong Siow Hwee

今天是我们的新年联合崇拜,祝大家新年蒙恩。正好正月初七也是人日,祝大家生日快乐。二月14日又是情人节,愿天下有情人终成眷属。今天也是大斋节的第一个主日,所以我们的经文都是关于耶稣第二次预言他的受难,以及过后相关的故事。不过,既然是新年,我就特别选了经文里面最吉祥的字句作为题目,那就是:彼此和睦。我们过年都希望新的一年平平安安。一家人若能和气团圆,那也是人人都渴慕的事。耶稣也希望门徒们可以彼此和睦。同门师兄弟若能够好好相处,那该多好。那么,他们为什么会不和睦呢?马可9:34 因为他们在路上彼此争论谁为大。这种门徒之间争大小的事情其实在各门各派都是常有的事。每个师父都迟早要面对这个难题。若处理得当,那这个门派就会兴旺起来。毕竟,团结就是力量。处理不当,那就面临自相残杀的结局。又或者会导致有人另起炉灶。到时候就你南拳我北腿,彼此势不两立。那么,争大小的事情应该如何处理呢?这是一条许多人所走过的路。我可以为大家介绍市面上的三个惯用的路径。

第一个路径是设立一个系统。就比如韩国人。韩国由于受儒家文化影响,长幼有序的尊卑思想非常明显。所以他们一般会按年龄分大小。除了年龄,他们也看重前辈后辈的分别,也就是资历的差异。所以,耶稣可以效法韩国人用年龄解决问题。安德烈是长兄,应该排名前面。然后才是弟弟彼得。约翰应该是老幺(Maknae),因为他年纪最轻。耶稣又或则可以用资历。先入门的是大师兄,最后的闭门弟子是小师弟。总之,耶稣就是选择一个系统,让后门徒们就可以依次排名。

不过这条路径虽然普遍,但是也有许多人不赞同。他们认为这样的系统很不公平。凭什么说年纪大,或资历深就能排在前面?他们会选择第二条道路,那就是任人唯贤,唯才是用(Meritocracy)。所以领袖应该是有能者居之。而最公平的方法就是设一个擂台。我们可以比武来选出掌门继承人。在耶稣的时代,这种事情就是这样解决的。罗马政权如何称霸?那就是扫平所有的周边蛮夷。而那个打遍天下无敌手的,罗马帝国把他尊为Augustus,意思就是‘众人以上最尊贵的那一位’。罗马人的彼此和睦的定义就是镇压所有的反叛。技压群雄就可以带来和平。杜琪峰导演有一部得奖的电影叫《以和为贵》(Election2)。 [1] 里面的和平是讲诉一个黑社会份子如何勾心斗角,心狠手辣,最后铲除异己成为黑社会老大。我们的彼此和睦是否也是一种消灭敌人的和睦。耶稣如果要在门徒之间分大小,不如就设下一个门徒训练的PSLE。然后按成绩,或比较一下彰显神迹的能力来定夺。

这条道路你认为如何?你有想过你的道路吗?也许你很反对第二条道路。你觉得,基督徒哪里可以这样打打杀杀,彼此竞争。那你又会如何处理呢?有些人也因此走出了第三条道路。也许耶稣应该把大家都好好坐下来,然后可以告诉他们:你们有什么好争的?大家和和气气不是很好吗?我不是告诉过你们要彼此相爱吗?有什么争执,彼此一人让一步就对了。这第三条的道路就是与世无争。所以也不必分大小,谁来带领也无所谓。耶稣可以告诉门徒们‘我们一家人没有大小。大家平辈就好。’也许你本身的性格就比较淡泊名利。那种争大小的事情你也不放在眼里。也许你觉得做基督徒就是应该毫无野心,最重要就是大家好来好去就行了。这真是耶稣的道路吗?

弟兄姐妹,我觉得不是。至少在今天的经文,我找不到。那种‘大家和和气气’的处理方式,也许对一些人可以管用。但我们在这里不是要选出一个小社团的团长。这些门徒有如一个国家领袖,是神的国的开国栋梁。而这个课题不是大家伤和气,闹别扭的琐碎事。这可是牵涉到这个国家的价值观和指导原则。所以,在马可福音的第一篇讲道,我就留下了一个伏笔。我问大家,这些门徒是为了什么跟随耶稣。经文的答案是:因为耶稣呼召他们来‘得人如得鱼一样’。这群人和普罗大众不一样,是有理想有抱负的人。其中一个还是奋锐党(Zealot)的人,随时可以拼死命也在所不惜的。这样的一组人,为了成就这样的大事业,争大小是理所当然的。他们的决定可以主导这个国家的命运。你想想新加坡当年建国一代的领袖就好。他们是那种对彼此之间如何分大小的事情轻描淡写的人吗?绝不可能。一个国家何人为大,就是这个国家何事为重。所以,什么是耶稣的道路呢?耶稣到底怎么看待门徒之间争大小的事呢?

9:35 耶稣说:「若有人愿意作首先的,他必作众人末后的,作众人的仆人。」然后在整段经文的结尾,耶稣又说,10:31 然而,许多现在领先的将要在后,在后的反要领先。耶稣前后一致性的提出同样的原则,所以这个原则就是神的国的指导原则。当然,耶稣的生命就彰显这个原则。今天的经文,耶稣一开始就预言自己的受难 。当然,到了故事的结局,当看清除了耶稣所完成的救恩,又再次领会这个道理。「若有人愿意作首先的,他必作众人末后的,作众人的仆人。」所以耶稣没有说你们不要作首先的,没有说你们不要得荣耀,没有说你们不要为大。门徒们愿意挺身而出跟随耶稣,是一群有理想,有抱负的人。他们不是庸庸碌碌,随随便便的人。他们是要来得人,如得鱼一样。他们最后成为了建国一代的领袖。所以耶稣是告诉他们,凡是要在这个国作首先的,他必作众人末后的,作众人的仆人。而众人的仆人首先的就是耶稣本身。

有点抽象对不对?这个原则什么意思呢?9:36 于是领过一个小孩子来,叫他站在门徒中间,又抱起他来,对他们说: 37 凡为我名接待一个像这小孩子的,就是接待我。现今社会,孩子是宝贝。所以,接待小孩子也许对你我没什么大不了。不过当时,小孩子是没有身份的,比佣人或奴隶还不起眼。当时的社会没有人会理会他们的存在,更不用说接待他们。所以,耶稣是告诉他们,你要作最大的,那就看你是如何对待那最卑微的。耶稣的话会不会让你联想到当年旧约里面先知常用的责备?国家的领袖怎么样,就看你的孤儿寡妇怎么样。「若有人愿意作首先的,他必作众人末后的,作众人的仆人。」

再举一个例子。当时罗马社会派系之分是很明显的。你要嘛就是属于这个党,要嘛就是属于那个家族。9: 38 约翰对耶稣说:「老师,我们看见有人奉你的名赶鬼,就上前阻止他,因为他不跟从我们。」 约翰争执的不是耶稣的品牌的版权问题,其实就是派系不同的偏见。这个人不是他们这一党的。39 耶稣却说:不要阻止他。40 凡不敌挡我们的,就是帮助我们的。耶稣在乎的是心意,而不是派系。一个作领袖的,能够放下这样的成见吗?如果一个人不是你这一伙的,你愿意包容他吗?

再举一个例子。耶稣说42 凡使这信我的一个小子犯罪的,倒不如把大磨石拴在这人的颈项上,扔在海里。这里的‘小子’不是指孩童,而是初信耶稣的人。他们的信心也许比较脆弱。所谓‘犯罪’是说他们信了没多久,就放弃离开主。你也许会觉得,别人犯罪关我什么事?耶稣又说43 倘若你一只手叫你犯罪,砍下来! 44 你缺了肢体进入永生,总胜过有两只手落到地狱,入那不灭的火里去。明明前面一节是说使人犯罪,为什么后一句却是讲到自己犯罪呢?明明前面是说绊倒人,为什么后一句是讲自己被绊倒呢?原来作为领袖,有时就像在一场二人三足赛跑一样。我们的奔跑过程被联系在一起。你的跌倒,也会导致同行的人的跌倒。而如何不跌倒,有时就是要舍弃一些你觉得很宝贵的东西。手、脚、眼睛,都是宝贵的。但有时一些宝贵的东西反而却阻拦你如何对待人。有人告诉我,他有一次邀请一位弟兄参与停车场的服侍。那位弟兄回复说他在公司是上司。他刚好有几个下属也是在同一间教会聚会。他说,因为这样他不可以参与这样的服侍。我不清楚他在公司有没有标榜自己是基督徒。不过,我想如果这样的话让他的下属听到。那肯定是他自己跌倒,又绊倒人。

弟兄姐妹,天国就是这样一个原则。「若有人愿意作首先的,他必作众人末后的,作众人的仆人。」有时就是必须有所牺牲,而这样才能服侍人。你自己不至跌倒,别人也不被你绊倒。可能是牺牲你的社会地位,可能是牺牲你的长辈的尊严。在罗马书,我们提到牺牲你的自由,甚至牺牲你更正确的神学,或牺牲你所受的冤枉和委屈。不管这东西对你多珍贵,倘若阻拦你服侍人,是否应该搁下,救自己,也救了别人。这也许就是让一个财主面对耶稣,最纠结的地方。现今社会的社会流动性(social mobility)很好,有钱人很多,没钱也不是一辈子潦倒的事。不过以前,就是一小撮的财主是特别阶层,其他人都是一天过一天,混口饭吃。钱财代表了社会地位,身份,自由,而最重要的,是代表了你是蒙神祝福的人。倘若变卖所有的,分给穷人,霎那间,你失去的不是钱,而是你从一个有身份的人,变成了不起眼的普通人。(from somebody to nobody)你若想象当时的处境,也真的很难放下。但一个财主若不放下,也绝不可能作众人的仆人。当时的社会,财主就是主人,不是仆人。现今的社会呢?拦阻你服侍别人的也许不再是财富。可能是宝贵的青春时间。可能是你的种族自豪感。可能是你的教育水平。你愿意放下吗?还是忧愁地离开?当时财主的改变虽看来好像不可能,10:27 耶稣说:「在人这是不能的,在 神却不然,因为 神凡事都能。」你们要祷告。原来耶稣就是这个自我牺牲的典范。 [2]

听过了几个例子,如今我们回到原来的课题。我要回答几个关键的问题。耶稣的道路到底是什么?作众人的仆人又和‘彼此和睦’是什么关系?从耶稣所彰显的生命我们可以看到,这个道路不是叫你萎缩,不是叫你懦弱,但也不是叫你打遍天下无敌手。世人的三个道路都不是耶稣的道路。耶稣的道路却是我们门徒的道路。我们要为神的国有抱负,有理想,愿神的旨意行在地上,如同行在天上。但这个天国的价值观和衡量标准是谁愿意放下自己服侍人,才能成为别人的祝福。你的服侍对象是否能保函最卑微的人,甚至是你的劲敌,你就是如同服侍主自己。原来耶稣的‘彼此和睦’,不是大家和和气气,而是彼此承担。我扶持你,你为我牺牲,我们是二人三足绑在一起,一起到达终点。这个世界有些人争权夺利,有些人是自命清高,不过都是为了明哲保身,自己顾自己。这不是彼此和睦。耶稣的福音要来改变了世界。彼此和睦就是彼此承担,也彼此牺牲。愿耶稣的道路,成为我们的道路。

[1]http://baike.baidu.com/view/528183.htm

[2] Therefore, this teaching is not just for leaders. It is for everyone. As Jesus said in 9: 49 Everyone will be salted with fire. 50 “Salt is good, but if it loses its saltiness, how can you make it salty again? Have salt among yourselves, and be at peace with each other.” For further insights about salt and self-sacrifice, and to link it to yeast of the Pharisees and Herod, see Leviticus 2: 4 “‘If you bring a grain offering baked in an oven, it is to consist of the finest flour: either thick loaves made without yeast and with olive oil mixed in or thin loaves made without yeast and brushed with olive oil. 8 Bring the grain offering made of these things to the Lord; present it to the priest, who shall take it to the altar. 9 He shall take out the memorial portion from the grain offering and burn it on the altar as a food offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord. 10 The rest of the grain offering belongs to Aaron and his sons; it is a most holy part of the food offerings presented to the Lord. 11 “‘Every grain offering you bring to the Lord must be made without yeast, for you are not to burn any yeast or honey in a food offering presented to the Lord. 13 Season all your grain offerings with salt. Do not leave the salt of the covenant of your God out of your grain offerings; add salt to all your offerings.

Mark 9:30–10:31 (Listen)

30 They went on from there and passed through Galilee. And he did not want anyone to know, 31 for he was teaching his disciples, saying to them, “The Son of Man is going to be delivered into the hands of men, and they will kill him. And when he is killed, after three days he will rise.” 32 But they did not understand the saying, and were afraid to ask him.

33 And they came to Capernaum. And when he was in the house he asked them, “What were you discussing on the way?” 34 But they kept silent, for on the way they had argued with one another about who was the greatest. 35 And he sat down and called the twelve. And he said to them, “If anyone would be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.” 36 And he took a child and put him in the midst of them, and taking him in his arms, he said to them, 37 “Whoever receives one such child in my name receives me, and whoever receives me, receives not me but him who sent me.”

38 John said to him, “Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop him, because he was not following us.” 39 But Jesus said, “Do not stop him, for no one who does a mighty work in my name will be able soon afterward to speak evil of me. 40 For the one who is not against us is for us. 41 For truly, I say to you, whoever gives you a cup of water to drink because you belong to Christ will by no means lose his reward.

42 “Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him if a great millstone were hung around his neck and he were thrown into the sea. 43 And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life crippled than with two hands to go to hell, to the unquenchable fire. 45 And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life lame than with two feet to be thrown into hell. 47 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell, 48 ‘where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.’ 49 For everyone will be salted with fire. 50 Salt is good, but if the salt has lost its saltiness, how will you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another.”

10:1 And he left there and went to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan, and crowds gathered to him again. And again, as was his custom, he taught them.

And Pharisees came up and in order to test him asked, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?” He answered them, “What did Moses command you?” They said, “Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of divorce and to send her away.” And Jesus said to them, “Because of your hardness of heart he wrote you this commandment. But from the beginning of creation, ‘God made them male and female.’ ‘Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate.”

10 And in the house the disciples asked him again about this matter. 11 And he said to them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her, 12 and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery.”

13 And they were bringing children to him that he might touch them, and the disciples rebuked them. 14 But when Jesus saw it, he was indignant and said to them, “Let the children come to me; do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of God. 15 Truly, I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child shall not enter it.” 16 And he took them in his arms and blessed them, laying his hands on them.

17 And as he was setting out on his journey, a man ran up and knelt before him and asked him, “Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 18 And Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone. 19 You know the commandments: ‘Do not murder, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor your father and mother.’” 20 And he said to him, “Teacher, all these I have kept from my youth.” 21 And Jesus, looking at him, loved him, and said to him, “You lack one thing: go, sell all that you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” 22 Disheartened by the saying, he went away sorrowful, for he had great possessions.

23 And Jesus looked around and said to his disciples, “How difficult it will be for those who have wealth to enter the kingdom of God!” 24 And the disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus said to them again, “Children, how difficult it is to enter the kingdom of God! 25 It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.” 26 And they were exceedingly astonished, and said to him, “Then who can be saved?” 27 Jesus looked at them and said, “With man it is impossible, but not with God. For all things are possible with God.” 28 Peter began to say to him, “See, we have left everything and followed you.” 29 Jesus said, “Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or lands, for my sake and for the gospel, 30 who will not receive a hundredfold now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands, with persecutions, and in the age to come eternal life. 31 But many who are first will be last, and the last first.”

(ESV)