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耶稣带来的终末信息

April 14, 2019, More from this speaker 更多关于此讲员: 廖乃慧传道 (Matthew 25:1-13) For more of this sermon series 更多关于此讲道系列: Matthew
Preached at a Mandarin (Sunday) service

Tags: Matthew 马太福音

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Bible passage (ESV) of the sermon can be found at the bottom of the page.

题目: 耶稣带来的终末信息
经文:马太福音25章1至13节
讲员:廖乃慧传道
讲解经文
天国好像10个童女带了灯去迎接新郎,五个愚拙,五个聪明。耶稣是在说我们有一些人生下来笨一些,有些聪明一些吗?不!耶稣是用智慧文学的思路,来指出有2条路,就好像诗篇第一篇,说到有两条路,一条是义人的路,是上帝认识的,另外一条是恶人的路,领向灭亡。这里沿用这样的思路,五个愚拙,五个聪明。等下我们就会知道为什么有些叫做聪明。
这十个童女其实都整装以待,等新郎来。他们为了婚宴,早早都到齐了,一起等候,每个人都带上油灯,如果新郎晚上来,他们的油灯就可以挑亮。童女打盹,或者睡着了--这也不是问题,因为自有人来叫醒她们。
对于听耶稣讲比喻的犹太人来说,婚宴意义重大,在初世纪的巴勒斯坦,一般百姓没有办法像有特权的人一样,日子过得丰足。他们是相对贫困的,收入的很大部分都上缴给罗马政府,留给自己养活一大家子的人的资源,是很有限的。如果有婚宴,对于整个村子,或者全部的亲人都是一个极大的期待,是一定要赶上的。童女如果被安排去迎接新郎,就是一定要见到新郎。新郎到了,怎么可以进不去?所以这个比喻竟然来到一个转折,有五个童女因为油不够,等她们去买了油回来,敲门,说:‘主啊,主啊,给我们开门!’ 12他却回答:‘我实在告诉你们,我不认识你们。,对犹太人来说,必然十分震惊。
为什么已经设定来欢迎新郎的童女,到最后一分钟却没有份?让我们回到稍微前面24:45-51的经文了。
45「谁是忠心有见识的仆人,为主人所派,管理家里的人,按时分粮给他们呢? 46主人来到,看见他这样行,那仆人就有福了。 47我实在告诉你们,主人要派他管理一切所有的。 48倘若那恶仆心里说:『我的主人必来得迟』, 49就动手打他的同伴,又和酒醉的人一同吃喝。 50在想不到的日子,不知道的时辰,那仆人的主人要来, 51重重地处治他,定他和假冒为善的人同罪;在那里必要哀哭切齿了。」
24章更早的部分,耶稣提到人子降临的时候,没有人知道,所以人要警醒,因为不知道主什么时候来。然后耶稣就讲了一个比喻,就是关于仆人在主人不在的时候,是否照着主人说的去行,管理家人,派粮食给家里的大小呢?如果仆人忘记了自己的身份,动手打同伴,又好像挪亚日子的人一样,只顾着吃喝嫁娶,那么主人回来的时候,这个仆人就要重重的处治了,和合本写了“或译为腰斩”,被定为和假冒为善的人同罪,就要哀哭切齿了。和合本圣经用哀哭切齿了,用来形容一种极度的悲切,完全的绝望了,因为已经没有可能改变结局了。
要重重处治了,或者说要腰斩了,让我们听了毛骨悚然。审判如果是这样,那么谁还逃得过呢?可是讲完哀哭切齿,接下来就是童女迎接新郎的比喻,带出来的信息就是:如果你要改变那个结局,现在就是时候(now is the time), 有出路阿,不一定来到那个结局的。这就是耶稣发出先知性的预言,把可以回转的路,先告诉了听众。
那我们就会问,要怎么办,可以做些什么?在比喻里聪明的童女,预备了油。这到底什么意思?其实就是她知道新郎可能会拖延,所以她做好长期的预备,这才是比喻最关键的地方了. 她的聪明就聪明在这里。而愚拙的,就是没有预备好长期等待,结果后来就跟婚宴完全没有关系了—这里是用比喻的方式来讲审判。
这个天国的比喻,把历代教会的心都抓住了,我们知道主必回来,只是未知何时回来?耶稣告诉我们“你们想不到的时候,人子就来了”。这不是叫你每年猜想人子几时回来,而是叫你要预备好,做你本来就应该做的。24:45-51的比喻,用了好几次“仆人”,“仆人的主人回来”,其实说的是,在信仰的群体里,教会的领袖需要认清楚,他们不是教会的主人,他们乃是基督的仆人。千万不能因为耶稣迟迟没有回来,他们就以为自己有权柄,瞎用资源,可以欺负所管理的信徒,而信徒期待得到“道”的牧养,却一点都没有用心去照顾。在教会历史里,有这样的事情发生吗?很不幸的,的确是有。
25:1-13就是透过童女迎接新郎的比喻,让教会的领袖明白一件事,基督必然回来,教会需要做足预备,知道要等。那么就好好做主的仆人,管理主的家,按时分粮食。
听到这里,你可能想问,既然这段是关于教会领袖的,那么就请长执和组长区长留下,其他人都可以退席了,该听见的人听见就好了嘛。可是在耶稣的群体里,正如《利未记》不是单单写给祭司看的祭司手册,而是全体的以色列人也都需要明白这个上帝是怎样的,要人来亲近他,与他维持正常的关系,在需要修补关系的时候,全体知道需要怎样来修补。那么今天的比喻,也是给基督整个教会的。
从耶稣说了这些比喻到今天,教会等耶稣回来,超过2000年。在漫长的等待里,教会有机会做神学思考,我也在一月二月到神学院报名“终末论”,上课之后我觉得这两点是要跟大家来分享的:
1. 天国是已然未然already but not yet
天国的君王是来了,他来的时候,展示了权柄,叫瞎子的得看见,瘸子行走。在大斋节灵修的第一天,提到天国的君王来到,他充满怜悯,在百姓当中使瞎子得看见,瘸子得行走。
而耶稣也说过门徒要行比他更大的事。在全球许多的地区,我们实在看到耶稣说的应许,确实发生了,尤其在非常贫困的人当中!!的确有瞎子看见,瘸子行走,死人复活!福音传开,有圣经的地方,教会就得以建立,可以扎根。如果圣经没有翻译成为他们的语言,只是靠口传福音叫人信主,那么福音的种子萌芽之后,也可能过了一段时日就没有信主的群体了。这就跟今天的比喻说到的“按时分粮”有密切的关系。
2. 天国是从大君王进来人类历史的那一刻开始,神学家给了一个名称叫“终末期”end time。
耶稣的终末性的信息很丰富,但是他少而又少的提到末世性的事件,上周的经文涵盖了一部分末世性的事件。末世性的信息与末世性的事件有重叠,但是二者有区别。
耶稣的末世性信息,揭示了他就是那位审判者。他是末世的焦点。他到来的时候,就要求我们去面对他!末世的情况是紧急的,是面对生与死,你没有时间了,你没有时间再回家去埋葬死人,也不可以扶着犁头往后看。耶稣的信息让你看到你必须回应!今天这2个比喻都带来非常紧逼的催促---“你们要警醒,因为那日子,那时辰,你们不知道。” 就是因为这是耶稣的末世性信息的特征!

反省
江丕盛教授一月份来到我们当中为教牧,长执做装备课的时候,他多次提到要趁丰年的时候做预备,不要等荒年,那个时候已经没有得收集了。相信大家都记得在创世记里,约瑟为法老解梦,有7个丰年,之后再来7个荒年。我们是否aware我们在丰年,或者说我们可能快要到丰年的结束了?我们有没有一个方向来做这一切的预备?无论是个别的堂会,或者整个宗派,或者四宗整体?
今天有许多议题,是需要关注的,大的题目譬如地球变暖,是一个全世界都需要关注的,如果以更加贴近我们的,无论是性别(sexuality), 年老(aging), 生命或者死亡的议题,都是需要老早就做预备的,然后在社会还没有关注的时候,教会已经做了研究,发出先知的声音。但是我们可能在顾着教会的增长或者不增长的题目,结果没有时间去想。
每一个世代要挑起的任务是不同的,在21世纪许多本地教会都纷纷展开社区服务的时候,我们的禧年社区服务中心也成立了。到底什么是我们的社区?我们要怎样做社区?这五年来参加了不少长老会办的区域性的宣教会议,开始扭转我对宣教的概念,以前的概念就是我们教会是差派者sender,把宣教士派去宣教工场mission field,有“这里”和“那里”的分别。
现在的概念,就是教会里一切的活动(敬拜/事奉/培育/儿童/青少年/乐龄事工/星期一晚上的课/福音课),其实是装备我们。
让你去到巴刹,办公室,专业圈子,客户群,学校,补习中心,医院,诊所,来做主的见证人。
你是被差派的,无论你有没有志愿做,但是别人看你,就是代表耶稣、代表教会。无论你觉得自己走路稳不稳,讲话行不行,你就是他们唯一见到唯一跟耶稣有关系的样本了。所以你每一次来敬拜,周三乐龄,周间的小组,你都需要赶快的吸收和学习,因为一走出去,你就开始服事(minister to )你见到的每一个人了。然后你回来小组或者乐龄聚会,你就是告诉别人你的服事遇到什么,邀请别人跟你一起去行动。如果教会的每个成员都这样的去服事人,你说教会是不是就活在人群当中见证基督?
第二方面,是一个集体性的行动。譬如教会坐落在马太区。我们5月1日将有一个跟地球变暖,但是缩小范围来谈“塑料太多,危害环境“的课题,中间我们会讲创世记1章的故事。这就是我们的平台,要让社区的人可以跟我们一起讨论。如果你愿意,请你替我们分发传单,我们还有7月8月的特别聚会,都是希望从平台角度跟社区居民有往来。
2017年11月我们到社区分发Jseed的传单,去了1000家。2019年3月我们印了传单,也到社区去敲门,希望分完1000张,我们再印1000张,如果可能,今年我们分3000张传单到社区。你需要传单的话,在崇拜厅的门外已经放置了传单,欢迎你带走,跟别人分享。
结论
教会就活在终末时期,我们等候耶稣回来,但是这个等候是需要非常用心的,每天都学习,因为每一天你都透过你说的话,做的事,别人都从你身上来看,那个你在等待的耶稣是怎样的。

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the publication of the Chinese Union Version of the bible, this was the last Chinese bible translation by the foreigners for the Chinese, and the Chinese were told from then on they would have to do their own translation. Incidentally this year also marks the 50th anniversary of my owning my own Chinese Union Version bible. When I was young, I was yearning to learn how to read, but no one could teach me, and when I started primary 1, and began to learn phonetic notations, equivalent to today’s hanyu pinyin, and via these phonetic notations (Bopomofo), I learned how to pronounce the Chinese characters character by character, and subsequently with the help of the dictionary, to learn about the meaning of each word, and the following year, in 1969, I got my first ever bible. It was a gift from my grandmother, it was wrapped in newspapers, and then given to me. When it was unwrapped, it was a brand new bible. In my hands, the first question which came to mind was, where should I begin? When I was in secondary 2, I joined the junior youth fellowship in church, there was a counsellor in my fellowship who said, one should complete reading the entire bible cover to cover every year, so I read 4 chapters every day, and spent one year to complete reading 1,189 chapters in total, and subsequently realized that even though I finished reading the bible, I still could not grasp a lot of it, so I bought a notebook, reread the bible again, and jotted down the subtitles in the 4 chapters which I have read daily in the notebook. Why, you may ask? So that I would be able to go through the notebook daily, to review what I read the day before, the day before that, the week before and so forth. Thereafter, I bought an even larger notebook, took detailed notes of the sermons every Sunday. This habit persisted till today, and when I listen to sermons, I will still make it a point to take notes, and then review what the pastor had said thereafter. We do not depend on our teachers or pastors to help us to be able to recall what we have studied and learned, or to remember the sermons we have listened to. And there is a secret to success in this respect, 8 hours after your lesson, you have to immediately review the materials once, and within 24 hours of that lesson, you have to review and revise one more time. If you are afraid that you will not be able to recall what you have learned, what should you do? You should articulate that to others 8 times, and that way you will for certain not forget. Some of the brighter ones could recall with just 3 times, but for me, 8 times.
If you were to ask that teenage me, what should someone who believes in Jesus be mindful of? I would have told you, stay alert, as described in the passage this morning, the message underlying the parable of the ten virgins. And if you were to ask me why should I stay alert? I would have told you, Jesus has resurrected and ascended to heaven, and He will most certainly return, and you do not want to forget and miss this because of the lack of vigilance and alertness.
Jesus very often spoke to people in parables, and He even spoke the parable of the sower in order to explain why He had to speak in parables. And why were parables used when it came to speaking about the kingdom of heaven? Because it is very difficult to use earthly languages for us to fully comprehend matters related to the kingdom of heaven. Parables are rich, colorful and vivid, every noun spoken brings about many associations, including colors, shapes, even smells, man’s interest would be piqued, and would then begin to listen. Do you know that a world could be created by mere spoken words? But there are certainly limitations to parables, which was the reason why Jesus had to speak many parables. But there is something extremely powerful and mighty about parables, and that is, it is the language of the kingdom of heaven, and it allows you to very firmly remember certain aspects of the kingdom of heaven. As was the case with these parables in the gospel of Matthew, every parable is incisive, at the moment when you felt delight when listening, there was a sudden twist, almost like being cut ruthlessly by a surgical knife, and Jesus would continue, and He would ask the listeners questions, to ascertain if they were following Him and His train of thought.
When Jesus told this parable in Chapter 25 to the crowd in front of Him, they would have been very intrigued, because who would not like weddings? Jesus mentioned that the kingdom of heaven would be akin to 10 virgins, and they have a mission, and that is to receive and welcome the groom at a wedding. Perhaps the customs and traditions in Jesus’ era were not similar to ours, the groom did not set a timetable to give everyone a heads up to prepare for His arrival, so all simply had to wait. So the bridegroom arrived, it is time to get married. Would you say that it was not too pleasant to keep everyone waiting? But you know what? The thing about the kingdom of heaven, is to knock all of us over (disruptive technology?), including your priorities. You are not the most important, but rather the master of the kingdom of heaven is the most important.
The virgins needed to bring their lamps with them to receive and welcome the bridegroom, but when they proclaimed ‘the bridegroom has arrived’, their lamps had almost run out of oil. At the beginning of the story, we were told 5 of the 10 were foolish, and the remaining 5 wise. The distinctive difference did not lie with their looks, eloquence, how they were dressed or who had a higher IQ? There was only one thing which mattered here, which was, who had prepared additional/back-up oil? Those who did were wise, and were able to go to the banquet and be seated together with the bridegroom. For the ones who did not, they were foolish, were unable to attend, went to buy more oil, knocked on the door, but to no avail, and the reply was “I do not know you.”
Why were they differentiated by whether they were foolish or wise? Because in Jesus’ time, there was what was known in the traditional Jewish faith as ‘wisdom literature,’ which consisted of 7 books, the most well-known books included book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and from the book of Proverbs, we could see that some people were wise, they knew to fear God. Some were foolish, they reckoned it did not matter whether or not God exists. Actually, Psalms 14:1 reads ‘Fools say to themselves, “there is no God,” so who cares? Do you know of such people? Perhaps, let me ask you, do you occasionally have similar thoughts? Do you really have God at the center of every decision you have to make daily, regardless of how insignificant it may be? Do you think you are a wise person or a foolish one?
Jesus started this parable with the methodology utilized in the wisdom literature, and this allowed us a glimpse of the two paths described in Psalm Chapter 1, one being the way of the godly, and the other the way of the wicked. Certainly the Lord guards the way of the godly, but the way of the wicked ends in destruction (Psalm 1:6).
When Jesus got to Jerusalem, He was at the pinnacle of His life, at this point, He needed the people to know His identity, and also to make decisions in light of His revelations. He had utilized many parables about the kingdom of heaven, seeking to demonstrate that at that point in time for Him was a decisive moment, a critical juncture. In Matthew 24, Jesus alluded that when the Son of Man arrived, no one would know, so all have to stay alert, because the timing of God’s arrival would not be known. Thereafter, Jesus told a parable, about whether a slave would follow the master’s instructions in His absence, and distribute food to the others at the proper time? If the slave were to forget who he was, and began to beat his peers, just like people in Noah’s days, only cared about eating, drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, and when the slave’s master returns, he would be assigned a place with the hypocrites, and there would be mourning/grieving. The Chinese Union Version described as weeping and gnashing of teeth, and these were used to describe a type of extreme grief, complete despair and despondence, because the possibility of altering or changing anything would no longer exist.
This story in Chapter 25 about kingdom of heaven being akin to the ten virgins, actually is attempting to tell us, if you want to change that ending, now is the time, then we would in turn ask, what do we need to do? In the parable, the wise virgins, were well prepared and had adequate oil. What does this mean? It simply means that she knew the groom might be delayed, so she was ready and prepared, regardless of how long the wait might have been, she was ready and prepared. This is the crux of this parable.
It has been 2000 years since Jesus’ resurrection and ascension, this 2000-year wait, would that be considered a long wait? Perhaps to us, indeed, it would be way too long whether it was a 2-year or 20-year wait. To the first generation disciples, they were adamant that Jesus would return in their lifetime. But after several centuries had come to pass, because of internal conflicts, the church had to start convening council meetings to resolve as to what we believe in, and after several of these meetings, Jesus had yet to return. Up till now, we are still awaiting Jesus’ return. If the church were to forget, or did not have on the agenda that Jesus would without a doubt return, we would be committing errors similar to those of the slaves in Chapter 24, bullying/mistreating our peers, thinking that we are the masters ourselves. The end results being grieving and gnashing of teeth and this indeed would be something very frightening.
We also know that in the church’s long history, there were certainly many periods of darkness. For some, they associated these periods of darkness with the times when the pope was corrupt or during the autocratic eras of papacy/the church government, but the western church did in fact experience a few episodes of severe black plague, in the 1440s, 25 million lives were lost, and EU population decreased by 30-60% over this period. In the 17th century, in Italy, London, Vienna, there were several episodes of large scale contagion/pandemics of infectious diseases, and led to the loss of countless lives. With events such as these, led people at that time to surmise that the end time has arrived, the world was about to end. But history has taught us, this was not exactly the end time, and theologians had also helped us to clarify what exactly is the end time, from Jesus’ perspective, began with His birth, and God thrusted into the history of man, and to act on what the turnaround/upturn which He had intended. God intended to bring about a turn-around in the history of the rebellious man, whom God had loved since creation. The word became flesh/God became flesh in the man Jesus, allowed us, to encounter, a complete man, who can whole-heartedly rely on God, listen to God, obey Him, and to bring about a brand new path for us. Lent helped us to commemorate this precious turn-about, which has brought about a turn-around in human history.
God’s bringing about the deliverance for us, just like the many parables which Jesus had spoken, vivid and bountiful, and beyond our understanding, but the church would need to continue to stay alert, and be aware that Jesus is the master, and one day, God would provide for all authority in heaven and on earth, to be given to Jesus. And at that time, all knees will bow down to Jesus, and all tongues will confess that He is Lord. And before the day comes, there would be no wavering in terms of the what the church would be required to do, we are Jesus Christ’s witnesses, to witness that God, through Jesus who obeys, had brought about a path of life for us. Turnaround in/Upturning peoples’ lives are possible, precisely because believing and trusting in God has already brought about this possibility. We can look to the cross, we can rely on Jesus, because of Him, we will be binded to Him, and our lives can be renewed, and every day can bring about fresh starts/renewals, do you believe that? You have to believe this, otherwise, why would you be sitting in this auditorium?
There is myriad of items which the church has to accomplish, but first and foremost, the church needs to understand her own identity, and from that understanding of her own identity, to take a fresh look at what the priorities for the church would be. The deliberation of every matter should be made from our identity, as to why we have to act, and how to go about it. And to fully comprehend our relationship with Christ, this relationship has to be so intimate, as would be the case with the branches always having to remain in the vine, and that even being split or apart slightly would be unacceptable. We have to wholly/fully allow Jesus to be our master, to be the master of the church, and when Jesus allows us to be the salt in this world, we will fulfil this duty and obligation to the utmost, and when it comes time for us to be the light, we will similarly not hide or conceal ourselves.
This parable of the ten virgins, has an important message, that is the church has to be fully prepared, do not lose heart and be discouraged, will persevere and not give up, till Jesus returns, He will be our God. Regardless of who comes into the church, our lives can be turned around/transformed because of Jesus, and for those who believe, God’s spirit will continually challenge our priorities, so that we will always obey Him, to follow His will, and to abide by His truth. Our God will certainly return. Are you ready for this?
Response: The church’s one foundation, is Jesus Christ Her Lord

Matthew 25:1–13 (Listen)

25:1 “Then the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. For when the foolish took their lamps, they took no oil with them, but the wise took flasks of oil with their lamps. As the bridegroom was delayed, they all became drowsy and slept. But at midnight there was a cry, ‘Here is the bridegroom! Come out to meet him.’ Then all those virgins rose and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.’ But the wise answered, saying, ‘Since there will not be enough for us and for you, go rather to the dealers and buy for yourselves.’ 10 And while they were going to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 11 Afterward the other virgins came also, saying, ‘Lord, lord, open to us.’ 12 But he answered, ‘Truly, I say to you, I do not know you.’ 13 Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour.

(ESV)